WATER TREATMENT BASICS

Enhancing the quality of water involves disinfection plus purification of untreated surface and ground water.

Community Level. A public/private water treatment facility aims to produce water safe to consume and pleasant to taste, while also ensuring that there is enough water to provide the demands of the community.

Raw, untreated water emanates from an underground aquifer (via wells) or surface lakes being a river or lake. It flows or perhaps pumped with a treatment facility. As soon as it’s there, the river is treated beforehand to take away debris - like leaves and silt. It undergoes some treatment processes, which include disinfection and filtration using chemicals or physical processes, eliminating microorganisms that induce diseases. When the treatment solutions are completed, water flows out via a system of pumps and pipes, which is often referred to as distribution system.



There is a slight difference water treatment process at various places, using the technology from the plant and water must be processed, nevertheless the fundamental principles are mainly exactly the same.

Coagulation / Flocculation. On the coagulation state, liquid aluminium sulfate or alum, at times polymer, is put in untreated/raw water. A combination causes tiny dirt particles in water to be fastened together or coagulated. Then, collections of dirt particles join together to make bigger, heavier particles - known as flocs - which can be easily removed through filtration/settling.

Sedimentation. When water and floc particles glance at the course of treatment, they flow into sedimentation basins where water moves slowly, letting heavy floc particles dip on the bottom. Floc collected around the lowermost the main basin is recognized as sludge. This goes through pipes to arrive at the drying lagoons. The sedimentation state is just not a part of Direct Filtration so, the floc is taken off through filtration.

Filtration. Water goes through a filter intended to remove water particles. Filters contain layers of gravel and sand, as well as in other cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration gathers the suspended water impurities and raises the efficacy of disinfection. Filters are cleaned on a regular basis by way of backwashing.

Disinfection. Before water switches into the distribution system, it really is disinfected to ensure that bacteria that triggers diseases, parasites and viruses is eliminated. Chlorine is used because it a great in disinfecting and maintaining residual concentration to safeguard from possible biological contamination seen in it of water distribution.

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